1) Hepatoprotective effects of Shilajit on high fat-diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats (2020)


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main cause of chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Shilajit, a medicine of Ayurveda, on the liver damage caused by NAFLD. 40 male Wistar rats (after being established as fatty liver models), were divided randomly into five groups as follows: control, vehicle, high-dose Shilajit, low-dose Shilajit and pioglitazone. Results showed that Shilajit treatment significantly reduced the values of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, glucose, liver weight, and steatosis, and instead, increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with the vehicle group (p <0.05). These findings suggest that Shilajit improved the histopathological NAFLD changes in the liver and indicated the potential applicability of Shilajit as a potent agent for NAFLD treatment


Journal: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

Link: https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/hmbci/ahead-of-print/article-10.1515-hmbci-2019-0040/article-10.1515-hmbci-2019-0040.xml



2) The effects of Shilajit supplementation on fatigue-induced decreases in muscular strength and serum hydroxyproline levels (2019)


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of Shilajit supplementation at 250 mg/d (low dose) and 500 mg/d (high dose) versus placebo on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, concentric peak torque, fatigue-induced percent decline in strength, and serum hydroxyproline (HYP). 63 recreationally-active men were randomly assigned to the high dose, low dose, or placebo group. The results of the present study demonstrated that 8 weeks of Shilajit supplementation at 500 mg/d promoted the retention of maximal muscular strength following the fatiguing protocol and decreased baseline HYP. Thus, Shilajit supplementation at 500 mg/d elicited favorable muscle and connective tissue adaptations.


Journal: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30728074/



3) Skin Transcriptome of Middle-Aged Women Supplemented with Natural Herbo-mineral Shilajit Shows Induction of Microvascular and Extracellular Matrix Mechanisms (2018)


The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Shilajit supplementation on skin gene expression profile and microperfusion in healthy adult females. Supplementation with Shilajit for 14 weeks was not associated with any reported adverse effect within this period. At a higher dose (250 mg bid), Shilajit improved skin perfusion when compared to baseline or the placebo. This work provides maiden evidence demonstrating that oral Shilajit supplementation in adult healthy women induced genes relevant to endothelial cell migration and growth of blood vessels. Shilajit supplementation improved skin microperfusion.


Journal: Journal of the American College of Nutrition

Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.2018.1564088





4) Potential pharmaceutic effect of Shilajit (mumie) on experimental osteoarthritis in rat (2018)


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a worldwide joint disease with clinical loss of motion and pain in humans. The conventional treatments are associated with essential side effects. The present study evaluated effect of Shilajit, a traditional medicine, on the osteoarthritis in rat model. 36 adult male rats were randomly divided into two groups: OA and treated with Shilajit groups. Aqueous extract of Shilajit was given to the treatment group for 21 days. After 21 days, histopathologic scores of destructive damages and synovitis were reduced in the Shilajit group and showed significant difference in compare to OA group. The present study shows that aqueous extract of Shilajit decreased cartilage degenerative changes in knee osteoarthritis. It also reduced inflammatory reactions in the synovial membrane.


Journal: Comparative Cilinical Pathology

Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00580-018-2662-0



5) Energy and health benefits of shilajit (2017)


Over the past 10 years, a growing number of studies have been published involving humans, animal, and in vitro systems in support of Shilajit’s uses and health-related effects. The current literature regarding the efficacy and safety of Shilajit is reviewed. Animal and human studies support its use as a “revitalizer,” promoting physical and mental energy, enhancing physical performance, and relieving fatigue in association with enhanced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Various published research studies indicate that Shilajit exhibits adaptogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, and neurological properties. Studies also show that Shilajit enhances spermatogenesis. Based on animal and human studies, the safety of Shilajit is well documented.


Journal: Sustained Energy for Enhanced Humans Functions and Activity

Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128054130000120



6) The human skeletal muscle transcriptome in response to oral Shilajit supplementation (2016)


The objective of the present study was to observe the effects of oral supplementation of a purified and standardized Shilajit extract on skeletal muscle adaptation in adult overweight/class I obese human subjects from the U.S. population. The study design consisted of a baseline visit, followed by 8 weeks of 250 mg of oral Shilajit supplementation, and additional 4 weeks of supplementation with exercise. Supplementation was well tolerated without any changes in blood glucose levels and lipid profile. Microarray analysis identified a cluster of 17 extracellular matrix (ECM)-related probe sets (genes) that were significantly upregulated in muscles after 8 weeks of oral supplementation compared to the baseline visit. This cluster included tenascin XB, decorin, myoferlin, collagen, elastin, fibrillin 1, and fibronectin 1. The study provided maiden evidence that oral Shilajit supplementation in adult overweight/class I obese human subjects promoted skeletal muscle adaptation through upregulation of ECM-related genes that control muscle mechanotransduction properties, elasticity, repair, and regeneration.


Journal: Journal of Medicinal Food

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948208/



7) In vitro evaluation of the antiviral properties of Shilajit and investigation of its mechanisms of action (2015)


The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiviral activity of Shilajit against a panel of viruses including herpes simplex type 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human rotavirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. The antiviral activity of Shilajit was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time-of-addition assays. Shilajit exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against all virus infectivity in vitro, but was inactive against human rotavirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The results of the present study demonstrate that Shilajit is endowed with broad, yet specific, antiviral activity in vitro and constitutes a natural source of antiviral substances. Further work remains to be done to assess its efficacy in vivo.


Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874115001634



8) Safety and efficacy of Shilajit (2014)


Shilajit (mumie; moomiyo, mummiyo) has been used for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions, however, few well-controlled human studies have been conducted on the effects of shiliajit. The safety of shilajit is well documented based on animal and human studies. Various research studies indicate that shilajit exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic, immunomodulatory, and anti-dyslipidemic properties. Animal and human studies indicate that shilajit enhances spermatogenesis. Furthermore, animal and human data support its use as a 'revitalizer', enhancing physical performance and relieving fatigue with enhanced production of ATP. Additional well-controlled human and animal studies involving the use of standardized products are needed.


Journal: Phytotherapy Research 

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23733436/



9) Parasympathomimetic effect of Shilajit accounts for relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum (2013)


For the present study, it was hypothesized that parasympathomimetic effect of Shilajit accounting for relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum may be one of the major mechanisms attributing to its traditional role in medicine. To test this, the effect of standard acetylcholine, Shilajit, and their combination was evaluated on cardiorespiratory parameters such as mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and neuromuscular transmission. The results of the in vivo study confirmed the peripheral parasympathomimetic effect of Shilajit (400 µg/mL). The in vitro results revealed that Shilajit (400 and 800 µg/mL) relaxed cavernous strips' concentration dependently and enhanced acetylcholine-mediated relaxations.


Journal: American Journal of Men’s Health

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23060465/



10) Evaluation of safety profile of black Shilajit after 91 days repeated administration in rats (2012)


In this study, albino rats were divided into four groups: vehicle 500mg/kg, 2500mg/kg, 5000mg/kg of Shilajit, respectively. The result showed that there were no significant changes in iron level of treated groups when compared with control. The result suggests that black Shilajit, is safe for long term use as a dietary supplement for a number of disorders like iron deficiency anaemia.


Journal: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609271/



11) Shilajit: A natural phytocomplex with potential precognitive activity (2012)


Investigations on Shilajit point to an interesting medical application toward the control of cognitive disorders associated with aging, and cognitive stimulation. Thus, fulvic acid, the main active principle, blocks tau self-aggregation, opening an avenue toward the study of Alzheimer's therapy. In essence, this is a nutraceutical product of demonstrated benefits for human health. Considering the expected impact of Shilajit usage in the medical field, especially in the neurological sciences, more investigations at the basic biological level as well as clinical trials are necessary, in order to understand how organic molecules of Shilajit and particularly fulvic acid, one of the active principles, and oligoelements act at both the molecular and cellular levels and in the whole organism.


Journal: International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296184/



12) Shilajit: A panacea for high-altitude problems (2010)


High altitude problems like hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, insomnia, tiredness, lethargy, lack of appetite, body pain, dementia, and depression may occur when a person or soldier residing in a lower altitude ascends to high-altitude areas. These problems may escalate rapidly and may sometimes become life-threatening. Shilajit is a herbomineral drug which contains humus, organic plant materials, and fulvic acid as the main carrier molecules. It actively takes part in the transportation of nutrients into deep tissues and helps to overcome tiredness, lethargy, and chronic fatigue. Shilajit improves the ability to handle high altitudinal stresses and stimulates the immune system. Thus, Shilajit can be given as a supplement to people ascending to high-altitude areas so that it can act as a "health rejuvenator" and help to overcome high-altitude related problems.


Journal: International Journal of Ayurveda Research

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20532096/



13) Shilajit: A review (2007)


Shilajit, a blackish-brown exudation from layers of rocks in many mountain ranges of the world, has been found to consist of a complex mixture of organic humic substances and plant and microbial metabolites. It has been used as a rejuvenator for thousands of years, in numerous countries. Many therapeutic properties have been ascribed to it, a number of which have been verified by modern scientific evaluation. This systematic review looks into the following properties: antiulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, immunomodulatory activity, anti-AIDS activity, antistress activity, learning augmentation, memory enhancement and anxiolytic activity. Shilajit has been attributed with many miraculous healing properties.


Journal: Phytotherapy Research

Link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6510688_Shilajit_A_review